The Iranian plateau today is a land surrounded by high mountains and spotted by warm lowlands. Two important mountain ranges, each with peaks over 5,000 meters high, stretch from the northwestern corner of the plateau, the current Azerbaijan province, to the south and east. The eastern branch, Alborz, boasts the highest peak of the two ranges, Mt. Damavand. The Alborz range creates a high barrier south of the Caspian Sea, making serious impacts on the climate of the plateau. While lush forests and pastures abound south of the Caspian and give it a mild, humid weather, the Alborz prevents the passing of the rain-rich clouds to the inside of the plateau, causing very low rainfall, and thus creating a dry and mostly warm climate south of the mountains.
The second mountain range, Zagros, stretches from northwest to the south and diverts to the east just north of the Persian Gulf. It does not cause as much complications as the Alborz, since the height of the Zagros peaks decrease around the Persian Gulf, allowing more clouds to move over the mountains. In areas were Zagros forms two branches, just south of Azerbaijan; an inhabitable area has been created that shows some of the oldest signs of settlement on the plateau.
Inside the country, there are two major deserts; one, Dasht-e Kavir, around 200 km east of modern Tehran and at the feet of the Alborz range, is covered with sand and is mainly uninhabited. The smaller desert, Lut, is not as dry and provides enough resources for the survival of small communities. These two deserts, both pushing towards the east, have caused the shift of population to the west, north, and south of the plateau.
In addition to the southern Caspian region, two more regions, one north of the Persian Gulf and east of the point of the meeting of Tigris and Euphrates, and the other at the point of meeting of the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Omman, are agriculturally very prosperous. .
The rivers of Iran are few and mainly seasonal. From the major rivers, only Karun in the south, Aras in the northwest, and Sepid-rud in the north flow year round, and only Karun is deep enough for modern navigation.
  • Do you know Iranian Culture
  • What about foods in Iran
  • About several ancient monuments

In Iran the lower status person issues the first greeting. In the reverse logic of ta’arof this means that a person who wants to be polite will make a point of this, using the universal Islamic salaam or the extended salaam aleikum. The universal phrase for leave-taking is khoda hafez —”God protect.” Greetings tend to be affectionate. Men kiss other men and women kiss other women at social events. If they meet on the street, a handshake is the more common greeting, not the opposite sex.  The most common greeting amongst Iranians is “salaam alaykum” or more simply “salaam” (peace).

Physical contact between members of the opposite sex is assiduously avoided except between relatives. When being introduced to Iranians you may find that introductions are restricted to members of the same sex since it is often the custom for men and women to socialize separately.
It is good form to offer a portion of what one is about to eat to anyone nearby, even if they show no interest. One sees this behavior even in very small children. It is polite to refuse such an offer, but the one making the offer will be sensitive to the slightest hint of interest and will continue to press the offer if it is indicated.
If you are invited to an Iranian’s house then you should check to see if the host is wearing shoes. If not, remove yours at the door. On arrival, you should expect to be shown into the guests’ room. You should also try to arrive at the invited time as punctuality in Iran is appreciated.
The vast majority of Iranians are Shi’a Muslims, important religious minorities have always played an important role in Iranian life. Zoroastrians date back to the Achaemenid Empire more than two thousand years ago.
Many people like to visit the wonderful array of mosques in Iran. However it is important to take note of some basic mosque etiquette. The main custom for visiting a mosque in Iran is to remove your shoes before going inside on the carpet. If unsure just observe others and follow them. It is also another custom in mosques in Iran to dress modestly so that your body and limbs are covered. Women must cover their hair and not expose anything above their ankles. Men should not wear shorts. In some mosques the caretaker provides visitors with a long robe when their clothes are inappropriate for the mosque.
You should not talk loudly in a mosque as this is a place of worship. If someone is praying, do not under any circumstances walk directly in front of them. Many people will not appreciate having their pictures taken during worship.

All the food in Iran as an Islamic country are halal and alcohol is not alloweded to serve in  any places.


Geographical Position, Isfahan

The province of Isfahan covers an area of approximately 107,027 square kilometers and is situated in the center of Iran. To its north, stand the Markazi (Central) Province and the provinces of Qom and Semnan. In the south, it is within the limits of the provinces of Fars, Kohkiluyeh and Booyer Ahmad. Eastwards, it is in the neighborhood of the provinces of Khorassan and Yazd. Whereas, in the west it has common borders with the provinces of Lurestan and Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari.

Climate, Isfahan

Isfahan province experiences a moderate and dry climate on the whole, ranging between 40.6° C (being the maximum on a hot summers day), and the minimum being 10.6° C on a cold day in the winter season. The average annual temperature has been recorded as 16.7° C. and the annual rainfall on an average has been reported as 116.9 millimeters. The city of Isfahan experiences an excellent climate, with four distinct seasons that are apparent.

History and Culture, Isfahan
Historians have come to record  Isfahan as a defense and military base. The security and protection of which was guaranteed by the increase of the number of castles, thereby, promoting the protection of the residents of the cities. These historical castles are Atashgah, Sarooyieh, Tabarok, Kohan Dej, Gard Dej etc. to name a few.

The great Shah Abbas I unified Persia, and with it created the grandeur of Isfahan. It even got the nickname Nesf-e-Jahan, meaning Half the World; to see Isfahan was to see half the world and no one leaves Isfahan without having marvelled at its architectural masterpieces. The highlights are Imam Square, with the mighty Imam Mosque, and the bridges crossing the Zayandeh Rud river.

Imam Square in Isfahan is one of the worlds largest squares, and also ranks among the most beautiful. One can easily spend several days just exploring the square, as well as the two mosques, the palace and the bazaar surrounding the square.


Iran Bastan Museum

There is a three dimensional map at the beginning of the hall of the first Building on which one can see all parts of Iran. Then, very ancient collections of potteries are displayed beginning from the 5th millennium B.C, decorated very uncomplicatedly. The potteries are in three different colors: red, buff and black. There are also various types of seals, clay tablets, figurines and ornaments. Bone-made and alabaster-made objects are also on display.


The next series of objects are bronze works of the north, northwest and Luristan province. In Luristan bronze works’ section, there can be visited samples of various kinds of objects used either in everyday life or ceremonies.

Golestan Palace Musuem

Golestan Palace Museum is located at Arq Suquare. The oldest of the historic monuments in Tehran, the Golestan Palace (Palace of Flowers) belongs to a group of royal buildings .The Arg was built during the reign of Tahmasb I (r. 1524-1576) of the Safaviddynasty (1502-1736), and was later renovated by Karim Khan Zand (r. 1750-1779). Agha Mohamd Khan Qajar (1742-1797) chosed Tehran as his capital. The Arg became the site of the Qajar (1794-1925).Court and Golestan Palace became the official residence of the royal family.

Everyone realizes why a new common language would be desirable: one could refuse to pay expensive translators. To achieve this, it would be necessary to have uniform grammar, pronunciation and more common words.